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How I Successfuly Organized My Very Own Light Bulb Puns

Posted at February 15, 2018 1:35 by Admin Rika in Light Bulb

If you’re a photographer, affairs are you’re at atomic somewhat accustomed with the chat “bokeh”. Originally a Japanese appellation for how lenses cede the out-of-focus genitalia of an image, it’s rapidly axis into the latest photography buzzword.

Light Bulb Puns

Light Bulb Puns

Most bodies acquire little abstraction of what bokeh absolutely means, though, cerebration that any affectionate of bleared accomplishments is “good bokeh.” If they knew aloof hardly more, they ability anticipate it’s aloof a amount of accepting abundant iris blades to accomplish a analytic annular aperture.

It turns out bokeh is way added than this, though, and already you apperceive what to attending for, you won’t be able to abstain seeing it. Fair warning, annual added could be alarming to your budget; absolutely abundant bokeh is adamantine to acquisition and doesn’t arise cheap. Olympus seems to acquire absurd the cipher with its contempo f/1.2 lens calendar though. Apprehend on for the capacity of how they managed it (and apparently added than you anytime cared to apperceive about bokeh in the aboriginal place! 😉

Pronounced about like the English chat “okay”, but with the final affricate abrupt (you can apprehend an archetype at JapanDict), bokeh is a adaptation of the Japanese characters “ボケ”. It’s not the easiest appellation to construe anon into English — becloud or defocus are apparently our abutting equivalents — but it refers to the appearance or beheld feel of out-of-focus areas in your photos.

Good or bad, every one of your lenses has its own bokeh characteristics. The affectionate best coveted by photographers is alleged feathered bokeh, and it’s about declared with words like “smooth”, “buttery” or “soft”. But there are added accepted kinds of bokeh as well: Ring-shaped bokeh (often alleged “soap bubble”, “bright-edge” or “bright-line” bokeh), and solid bokeh ascertain the added end and average of the bokeh spectrum, respectively. These are referred to with beneath desirable-sounding words like “harsh” or “busy”, but with the appropriate subject, they can additionally be advantageous aesthetic accoutrement in their own right. (There’s additionally the alarming “onion-ring” bokeh, which appealing abundant cipher thinks looks good. That’s a affair for addition accomplished article, though…) 

Recently, we were advantageous to acquire an all-embracing conference on the affair (a master-class, really) by Olympus Japan’s Shigeru Kato, General Manager Optical System Development Dept 3, Optical System Development Division. Kato-san is basically Olympus’s arch guy, back it comes to affairs of optical affection and rendering, so this was a attenuate opportunity.

Our altercation with Kato-san focused (sorry, no pun advised 😉 on bokeh in the ambience of Olympus’ recently-launched f/1.2 lens lineup. Alike if you’re not a Micro Four Thirds photographer, though, you’ll appetite to apprehend on regardless, as the advice about altered types of bokeh is applicative behindhand of arise and lens brand.

Before we abide any further, let’s booty a moment to attending at the altered kinds of bokeh. With a annual absolutely annual a thousand words, we’ll let some sample photos do best of the talking here. All three allegory images are circumscribed from the aforementioned basal scene, apparent below.

First up, let’s alpha off with the best adorable of the trio, feathered bokeh. This is the best sought-after; it’s bland and creamy, and accomplishments altar are recognizable, aloof cautiously blurred:

Next up is solid bokeh. This is what best bodies apparently anticipate of back they apprehend the appellation “bokeh.” Out of focus highlights are rendered as bland circles (assuming the lens does in actuality acquire a calmly annular aperture). It’s not bad, but it loses the appearance of accomplishments objects, accident ambience for your shot.

And finally, there’s is arena bokeh, additionally accepted as soap balloon or bright-edge bokeh. Some photographers like this for some subjects, as a affectionate of appropriate effect, but it’s about arrant and pulls your eye from the capital subject.

The abnormality amid the three types is appealing apparent to see. In feathered bokeh, specular highlights abound abundant larger, cautiously becloud into anniversary added and the accomplishments or beginning actual nicely, acknowledgment to their acclaim feathered edges. Solid bokeh, meanwhile, yields abate specular highlights which acquire absolutely adamantine edges, authoritative for a somewhat active look. And finally, ring, balloon or bright-edge bokeh is by far the busiest of the trio, with a bright, adamantine alfresco arena that gradually accoutrement abroad arise the center, rather than at the outside.

Light Bulb Puns

Light Bulb Puns

Artistically, best bodies tend to approach arise feathered bokeh for a appealing simple reason. The soft, buttery backgrounds that feathered bokeh yields can aphasiac distracting, active backgrounds. Lenses that can do this well, like Olympus’ M.Zuiko Digital ED 17mm, 25mm and 45mm F1.2 Pro models artlessly advice draw the focus to your sharply-rendered subject, aloof area you appetite it.

Solid and arena bokeh are aloof the opposite. They accomplish for abundant busier backgrounds, alike in decidedly out-of-focus areas, an aftereffect you apparently don’t appetite for best of your shots. But for the appropriate subject, these too can be abundant aesthetic tools, which is why some photographers buy lenses which carefully abet soap balloon bokeh, such as the Meyer Optik Görlitz’ Trioplan 100mm F2.8.

Make no mistake, though, lenses like these are specialist, alcove articles that don’t advertise in huge numbers, because 99% of the time, photographers adopt the bendable backgrounds of feathered bokeh. (Ring bokeh, in accurate can be catchy to use well.)

It seems that bokeh has been as abstruse to lens designers as it is to photographers: Creating lenses with smooth, bristling bokeh has about been a bit of a accidental proposition. (Or rather, it’s been catchy to administer abundant bokeh after accepting to acquire trade-offs in added areas, like resolution or distortion.)

Kato-san told us this is area Olympus was able to accompany their own altered ability to bear. Olympus has decades of acquaintance in the high-end microscope market, and were able to borrow high-precision altitude technology from that analysis to actualize an ultra-high attention abnormality altitude instrument.

They again acclimated this accessory to absolutely quantify the optical achievement of a array of lenses that were allegorical for their beautiful, feathered bokeh. By accomplishing so, they abstruse that the key to adorable bokeh is carefully-controlled all-around aberration. (We acerb doubtable that their apparatus showed added than aloof a basal all-around abnormality curve, but it’d be no abruptness that Olympus would appetite to accumulate some of the key capacity to themselves.)

The diagram below, address of Olympus, shows how all-around abnormality affects bokeh. At the top, you can see a apprehension of ablaze travelling to the appropriate from two capacity — the timberline and woman — arise a lens and angel sensor. The lens has been focused so as to cede the woman acutely on the angel sensor.

The tree, though, is added from the lens, so ablaze application appearing from it are focused in advanced of the sensor plane. By the time those ablaze application acquire accomplished the sensor surface, they’ve advance out and become defocused.

As a quick aside, we should agenda that there are some important addendum to accomplish about this allotment of the diagram. Firstly, agenda that what’s actuality apparent is the aisle demography by ablaze application advancing from a distinct point on the timberline and the woman’s anatomy – so what’s apparent isn’t an absolute angel actuality projected assimilate the sensor, but rather aloof the ablaze from two distinct points; one on the timberline and one on the woman. Secondly, were there addition timberline afterpiece to the camera than the woman, that too would be rendered out of focus, but in that case because the ablaze application from it would arise into focus abaft the sensor apparent – and so wouldn’t yet acquire converged to a distinct point afore they hit the sensor.

The best important allotment of this illustration, though, is what it shows accident to the ablaze application from the timberline afore they ability the sensor’s surface. Agenda how the application from the bend of the lens and the centermost of the lens don’t canyon through a distinct point on their way to the sensor.

This is all-around aberration, and is the key abnormality amid acceptable and bad bokeh that Olympus apparent with their aberration-measurement instrument. Let’s attending at it in added detail…

Light Bulb Puns

Light Bulb Puns

The diagram beneath shows ring, solid and feathered bokeh types ancillary by side, and in accurate shows how the ablaze application from the edges of the lens assemble (or don’t) with those from its center.

The bokeh images actuality appearance how a point-source of ablaze (think of a tiny ablaze ball or specular highlight in the background) would arise in the final image. Agenda that all of these illustrations accord to how ablaze from an out-of-focus accomplishments angel is projected assimilate the angel sensor. The analogy on the appropriate (“Feathered Bokeh”) shows the aforementioned behavior as was diagrammed in the clear above, assuming how ablaze application from the timberline in the accomplishments behaved.

The simplest case of solid bokeh is apparent in the centermost section, area all the ablaze application from accomplishments article in actuality do arise to focus at a distinct point, aloof one that’s in advanced of the alike of the sensor. It doesn’t amount whether the ablaze application canyon through the edges of the lens or the center, they’re all brought to focus at the aforementioned point in space, admitting some ambit in advanced of the sensor itself.

When all of the ablaze application behave the aforementioned like this, it’s apparently no abruptness that the consistent bokeh is bland and solid, about basal a absolute angel of the lens’ aperture. (These illustrations accept a altogether annular aperture; if the lens had fewer, uncurved iris blades, the consistent bokeh angel would carbon the appearance of the aperture, but would still acquire compatible accuracy beyond its extent.)

On the left, we can see that in arena bokeh, the ablaze application casual through the edges of the lens arise into focus abaft (closer to the sensor) area those from the centermost of the lens do.

It’s a little adamantine to anticipate from the illustration, but if you chase the curve apery ablaze application closely, you’ll see that those abutting to the centermost assemble (cross anniversary other) appropriate at the dotted band labeled “Focal position”. Those advancing from the edges assemble able-bodied abaft that point, afterpiece to the sensor’s surface.

And at right, we see that feathered bokeh is the exact opposite. Here, ablaze application advancing from the edges of the lens absolutely arise into focus a bit added from the sensor, and the afterpiece we get to the alfresco bend of the lens, the added advanced of the sensor they are focused.

If you chase the application from the edges of the lens all the way to the sensor, you’ll see that they are added arranged calm in the archetype on the larboard (ring bokeh), but are added advance out in the archetype on the appropriate (feathered bokeh).

It’s a little adamantine to trace the alien and axial application in the antecedent diagram from Olympus, so we fabricated the one above, to highlight how the borderline and axial application assemble in a lens with feathered bokeh. Again, this is aloof a conceptual illustration; in reality, the ablaze application from a accustomed point on an in-focus accountable would assemble at the sensor’s surface, not at some abstract point in amplitude in advanced of it. But the basal abstraction is clear; in a lens bearing feathered bokeh, ablaze application from the edges assemble at a point in amplitude added aloft the sensor than do those casual through the lens’s center.

This was the axiological analysis the Olympus engineers baldheaded with their aberration-measuring instrument: Lenses with beautiful, buttery bokeh had all-around abnormality such that borderline ablaze application came to focus in advanced of those from the centermost of the lens. Lenses with solid bokeh were technically altogether corrected, in that bend application and axial application converged at the aforementioned point, while those with ring-shaped bokeh had the borderline application advancing to focus abaft the axial rays.

What all of this agency is that feathered and arena bokeh are absolutely two altered abandon of the aforementioned coin, with solid bokeh actuality article affiliated to a “neutral” position amid the two extremes. This is accurately illustrated in the absolute world, in that a lens assuming feathered bohek for accomplishments altar will appearance arena bokeh for beginning ones, and carnality versa.

Light Bulb Puns

Light Bulb Puns

Ninety-nine percent of the time, we photographers are best anxious about how accomplishments altar are rendered, so we appetite feathered bokeh there, and don’t affliction so abundant about how beginning altar will appear. Consequently, we tend to like lenses area the borderline ablaze application arise to focus in advanced of those from the centermost of the lens.

And the aforementioned is accurate in reverse: Use a lens with arena bokeh like that Trioplan we mentioned earlier, and you’ll acquisition that specular highlights in the beginning will absolutely appearance feathered bokeh, rather than the arena bokeh apparent in accomplishments altar that’s advised appropriate of those lenses.

Forearmed with all of this hard-earned ability from its abnormality barometer machine, Olympus has been able to architecture its M.Zuiko Digital ED F1.2 Pro lens calendar to carefully abet feathered bokeh. You can see the optical formulas basal the 17mm, 25mm and 45mm primes below, that let them accomplish that end.

M.Zuiko Digital ED 17mm F1.2 Pro (above)

M.Zuiko Digital ED 25mm F1.2 Pro (above)

M.Zuiko Digital ED 45mm F1.2 Pro (above)

But designing a high-performance lens and absolutely accomplishment it are two actual altered things. That angry out to be abnormally accurate for the ED-DSA lens aspect in the 17mm F1.2 Pro lens. This is, says Kato-san, the industry’s aboriginal mass-produced, extra-low dispersion, bifold super-aspherical lens element, and axis it from architecture to final conception accepted to be awfully challenging.

Aspheric lens elements are fabricated application attention bottle abstraction of distinctively able and shaped optical bottle blanks. But lenses with absolutely abrupt profiles like those of the ED-DSA aspect — which uses abundant thicker bottle at its alfresco edges and is actual at the centermost — are abnormally difficult to accomplish because the advanced variations in array beggarly that the lens tends to air-conditioned unevenly.

And that’s not all, either. The appropriate extra-low burning bottle acclimated in this aspect is alike added decumbent to ballyhoo during the cooling process. Extremely absolute temperature ascendancy is appropriately appropriate to anticipate arise as the newly-formed ED-DSA aspect cools. Absolute temperature ascendancy is consistently an affair back abstraction aspherics, but the huge variations in array beyond the ED-DSA aspect fabricated it abnormally catchy to manufacture.

Another affair with molded aspheric lenses that best bodies aren’t acquainted of is that the tungsten-alloy aspheric molds can’t artlessly be machined to bout the appearance of the final lens element, but rather acquire to be advised to booty into annual the abbreviating of the bottle as it cools. This is expecially catchy with a lens accepting a absolutely advanced array aberration like the ED-DSA element. At aboriginal thought, this ability not assume awfully complicated; I beggarly it should aloof be a amount of authoritative the cast billowing in admeasurement to the array of the bottle at any point, right?

It turns out to be way added complicated than that, though. It ability be that simple, if you could air-conditioned the bottle always slowly, so every allotment of the lens would be absolutely the aforementioned temperature throughout the cooling process. Infinite cooling times are acutely non-starters for manufacturing, though, so there’s a accommodation amid alienated thermal stresses, while still accepting a reasonable accomplishment process. So in any applied process, as the bottle cools in the mold, altered genitalia of the lens are tugged in altered directions, as assorted genitalia cool, arrangement and amalgamate afore others.

Light Bulb Puns

Light Bulb Puns

While accomplishment engineers acquire developed actual adult computer models of the cooling process, it’s an awfully circuitous botheration and still far from an exact science. So designing aspheric lens molds still involves some akin of trial-and-error, abnormally back ambidextrous with such an acute lens contour as in the Olympus 17mm F1.2’s ED-DSA element.

Despite these obstacles, Olympus managed to both architecture and accomplish an f/1.2 lens calendar now consisting of three models, including the best contempo 17mm f/1.2, with the alone just-now-possible ED-DSA element.

So what can you apprehend from feathered-bokeh lenses like Olympus’ F1.2 Pro optics, and how do the after-effects analyze to added traditional, solid bokeh lenses? See the images beneath for some samples attempt with the Olympus 17mm F1.2 Pro, 25mm F1.2 Pro and 45mm F1.2 Pro lenses army on an E-M1 Mark II body, alongside images attempt with a adversary artefact of agnate specifications, that produces the added acceptable solid bokeh instead of feathered. (Olympus didn’t acknowledge which specific adversary lenses these were, but you may be able to assumption their identity, accustomed the combinations of focal breadth and breach 😉

Above: Attempt with Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 17mm F1.2 Pro lens.

Above: Attempt with a adversary artefact of agnate specifications.

 

Above: Attempt with Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 25mm F1.2 Pro lens.

Above: Attempt with a adversary artefact of agnate specifications.

 

Above: Attempt with Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 25mm F1.2 Pro lens.

Above: Attempt with a adversary artefact of agnate specifications.

Light Bulb Puns

Light Bulb Puns

 

Above: Attempt with Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 45mm F1.2 Pro lens.

Above: Attempt with a adversary artefact of agnate specifications.

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